1) Windows является монопольной practically usable реализацией стандарта платформы WIN32 (и ряда других связанных стандартов)
2) Микрософт является монополистом в силу своего market share
Существование Линукса и Яблока не отменяет ни одного из этих положений.
Напомню ключевое определение: монополией является способность диктовать цены.
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1. the market share of the enterprise in a particular market;
2. the possibility of substitution of the goods or services in a particular market, giving regard to considerations of time and place;
3. the ability of the enterprise to influence prices in a particular market;
4. whether formidable difficulties exist restricting other enterprises in entering a particular market;
5. the import and export status of the goods or services.
minimum requirements, stipulating that an enterprise may not be considered as a monopoly in the absence of any of the following circumstances:
1. the market share of an enterprise reaches one-half (1/2) of a particular market;
2. the combined market share of two enterprises reaches two-thirds (2/3) of a particular market;
3. the combined market share of three enterprises reaches three-fourths (3/4) of a particular market.
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In an industry where a natural monopoly does not exist, the vast majority of industry, the marginal cost decreases with economies of scale, then increases as the company has growing pains (overworking its employees, bureaucracy, inefficiencies, etc.) Along with this, the average cost of its products will decrease and then increase again. A natural monopoly has a very different cost structure. A natural monopoly has a high fixed cost for a product that does not depend on output, but its marginal cost of producing one more good is roughly constant, and small.
A firm with high fixed costs will require a large number of customers in order to retrieve a meaningful return on their initial investment. This is where economies of scale become important. Since each firm has large initial costs, as the firm gains market share and increases its output the fixed cost (what they initially invested) is divided among a larger number of customers. Therefore, in industries with large initial investment requirements, average total cost declines as output increases over a much larger range of output levels.
Once a natural monopoly has been established because of the large initial cost and that, according to the rule of economies of scale, the larger corporation (to a point) has lower average cost and therefore a huge advantage. With this knowledge, no firms attempt to enter the industry and an oligopoly or monopoly develops.
A natural monopoly and a monopoly are not the same concept. A natural monopoly describes a firm's cost structure (high fixed cost, extremely low constant marginal cost). A monopoly describes market share and market power; the two are not synonymous.
Микрософт является как естественной монополией, так и просто монополией.