Sergey Oboguev's Journal|
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Friday, June 20th, 2008
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We, the People of the State of California, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, in order to secure and perpetuate its blessings, do establish this Constitution.
Sec. 1. All men are by nature free and independent, and have certain inalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing, and protecting property: and pursuing and obtaining safety and happiness.
Sec. 2. All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people; and they have the right to alter or reform the same, whenever the public good may require it.
Sec. 3. The right of trial by jury shall be secured to all, and remain inviolate forever.
Sec. 5. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require its suspension.
Sec. 8. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime ... unless on presentment or indictment of a grand jury... No person shall be subject to be twice put jeopardy for the same offence.
Sec. 9. Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions on indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libellous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
Характерно, что в 1879 году статья о защите свободы слова была сделана первой статьей конституции
, сразу за преамбулой.
Sec. 10. The people shall have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the legislature for redress of grievances.
Sec. 3. The justices of the Supreme Court shall be elected at the general election, by the qualified electors of the State, and shall hold their office for the term of six years.
Sec. 5. The State shall be divided by the first Legislature into a convenient number of districts ... distirct judges shall be elected by the qualified electors of their respective districts, at the general election, and shall hold their office for the term of six years.
Sec. 6. The District Courts shall have original jurisdiction, in law and equity, in all civil cases where the amount in dispute exceeds two hundred dollars, exclusive of interest. In all criminal cases not otherwise provided for, and in all issues of fact joined in the probate courts, their jurisdiction shall be unlimited.
Sec. 7. The Legislature shall provide for the election, by the people, of a Clerk of the Supreme Court, and County Clerks, District Attorneys, Sheriffs, Coroners, and other necessary officers; and shall fix by law their duties and compensation. County Clerks shall be, ex officio, clerks of the District Courts in and for their respective counties.
Sec. 8. There shall be elected in each of the organized counties of this State, one County Judge, who shall hold his office for four years. He shall hold the County Court, and perform the duties of Surrogate, or Probate Judge. The County Judge, with two Justices of the Peace, to be designated according to law, shall hold courts of sessions, with such criminal jurisdiction as the Legislature shall prescribe, and he shall perform such other duties as shall be required by law.
Sec. 9. The County Courts shall have such jurisdiction, in cases arising in Justices Courts, and in special cases, as the Legislature may prescribe, but shall have no original civil jurisdiction, except in such special cases.
Sec. 20. The Comptroller [ревизор], Treasurer [казначей], Attorney General [генеральный прокурор], and Surveyor General, shall be ... elected at the same time and places, and in the same manner as the Governor and Lieutenant Governor.